भारतीय विद्याभवन – बालबोध
अष्टमः पाठः Eighth Lesson
There is no glossary in this lesson. There are 15 sentences in Sanskrit and their English translations. There is also a title at the beginning. =>
पाठशाला, विद्यालयः = A school
- एषा मम पाठशाला = This (is) my school.
- अहं पाठशालां गच्छामि = I go to the school.
- रमेशः अपि पाठशालां गच्छति = Ramesh also goes to the school.
- त्वं पाठशालां कदा गच्छसि ? = When do you go to the school ?
- प्रातःसमये अहं तत्र गच्छामि = I go there in the morning.
- तत्र त्वं किं पठसि ? = What do you learn there ?
- अहम् एकं पुस्तकं पठामि = I read a book.
- सः किं लिखति ? = What does he write ?
- सः एकं पत्रं लिखति = He writes a letter.
- अहम् अपि पत्रं लिखामि = I also write a letter.
- अतीव विशालः मम विद्यालयः = My school is very big.
- रविवासरे विद्यालयस्य अवकाशः भवति = The school is closed (has holiday) on Sunday.
- त्वं विद्यालयात् कदा आगच्छसि ? = When do you come from school ?
- सायङ्काले पञ्चवादनसमये = At five o’clock in the evening.
- पञ्चवादनात् परम् अवकाशः भवति = Leisure hours begin after 5 o’clock.
It should be noted that
- In the title and in sentence #1, there is word पाठशाला. In sentences 2, 3, 4 the same word has taken the form पाठशालां and in this form it means “to the school”.
- In the title and in sentence #11, there is the word विद्यालयः. In sentence #12, it has the form विद्यालयस्य In this form it actually has the meaning “of the school”. In sentence #13, it has yet another form विद्यालयात्. In this form it has the meaning “from school”.
- As can be noted, the forms पाठशालां (to the school) विद्यालयस्य (of the school) विद्यालयात् (from the school) are actually single-word forms, combining in them the meaning of the prepositions ‘to’, ‘of’, ‘from’. So what are prepositions in English become word-forms in Sanskrit.
- Major English prepositions are of eight ‘cases’. Sanskrit word for ‘case’ is विभक्ति. Among the eight cases
- First case प्रथमा विभक्ति is the subject case, for the subject word(s) in a sentence.
- Second case द्वितीया विभक्ति is the object case, for the object word(s) in a sentence.
- Third case तृतीया विभक्ति has the meaning of the preposition ‘with’ or ‘by’
- Fourth case चतुर्थी विभक्ति has the meaning of the preposition ‘for’
- Fifth case पञ्चमी विभक्ति has the meaning of the preposition ‘from’
- Sixth case षष्ठी विभक्ति has the meaning of the preposition ‘of’ Note the word मम meaning ‘my’ is also of षष्ठी विभक्ति.
- Seventh case सप्तमी विभक्ति has the meaning of the prepositions ‘at’, ‘in’, ‘on’, upon’
- Note in sentence #12, the word रविवासरे on Sunday and in sentence #14 सायङ्काले At five o’clock पञ्चवादनसमये In the evening are all of seventh case सप्तमी विभक्ति.
- Eighth case संबोधन विभक्ति is the address case, when the sentence is addressed to somebody.
- So, when translating from English to Sanskrit, one should focus on the preposition and use the form of the word in the appropriate case. OR
- one should focus on the role of the word in the sentence, whether subject-word or object-word or address case.
Above sentences are followed by exercises to frame new sentences using the following words / phrases, rather, a glossary.
- विद्यालयः A school
- विद्यालयात् From the school
- गृहम् To the house (home)
- गृहात् From home
- दशवादनसमये At ten o’clock
- एकादशवादनसमये At eleven o’clock
- ग्रामम् To the village
- नगरम् To the city
- ग्रामात् From the village
- नगरात् From the city
- सोमवासरे On Monday
- रविवासरे On Saturday
- एकवादनात् परम् After one o’clock
- द्विवादनात् परम् After two o’clock
Among the above, words/phrases at 5, 6, 13 and 14 speak of clock-timings in hours. By that it seems to have been suggested that one should get to know numbers from 1 to 12 => एक, द्वि, त्रि, चतुर्, पञ्च, षट्, सप्त, अष्ट, नव, दश, एकादश, द्वादश.
In sentence #14 we have सायङ्काले पञ्चवादनसमये. As such this can be extended also to सायङ्काले षट्-वादनसमये, सायङ्काले सप्तवादनसमये. When pronouncing षट्-वादनसमये the pronunciation would tend to become षड्वादनसमये. We should write according to the pronunciation only.
Words in 11 and 12 have names of two week days. Note, वासर means weekday. Names of the seven weekdays are => रवि, सोम, मंगल, बुध, गुरु, शुक्र, शनि. Since in 13 and 14, परम् means ‘after’ we can say, रविवासरात् परं सोमवासरः (Monday after Sunday) and so on. It would be good to complete them all.
Among above words/phrases, we have in 2, 4, 9, 10, 13 and 14 the words विद्यालयात्, गृहात्, ग्रामात्, नगरात्, एकवादनात् and द्विवादनात्. Also we would have रविवासरात्, सोमवासरात्, मंगलवासरात्, बुधवासरात्, गुरुवासरात्, शुक्रवासरात्, शनिवासरात्. They all are त्-ending. What is affixed at the ending of a word is called as a suffix प्रत्यय. Actually विद्यालयात् is from विद्यालय. So the प्रत्यय is आत्, which is the प्रत्यय of पञ्चमी विभक्ति.